I Bleed Aqua.

Disclaimers: 1) I own a lot of Twitter stock personally and in my funds. 2) I definitely do not speak on behalf of Twitter. 3) I do not have any inside information about Twitter. 4) I can’t think of a fourth thing to disclaim, but putting this here just in case.

Twitter has held a close place in my heart since Ev signed me up in 2006. It made me feel closer to people who I wasn’t actually near. It brought me more diverse perspectives than any blog reader ever could. I found myself in the center of events, sharing experiences, posing questions, passing along lessons learned, and making unexpected friends.

My initial investment in Twitter was relatively small, but as I grew increasingly confident the company would change the world, I bought more and more stock. At one point I had even exhausted all of my savings purchasing Twitter shares and was technically insolvent. During those years, I walked into the company’s office, often uninvited, and did whatever I could to be helpful. The now CEO of Microsoft, Satya Nadella, sat across the table from me as I helped negotiate Twitter’s first few search monetization deals. I had investors like Jerry Murdock at Insight Ventures gas up their jets to fly to SF and invest at a then-staggering $1 billion valuation. I grabbed the phones of any celebrities or politicians or company heads I knew and installed the Twitter app before they could say no. I pitched in to land big recruits like Adam Bain and Alex Macgillivray. I was obsessed with helping.

Twitter went from just being an investment to a huge part of my identity. My kids can spot a Twitter birdie from a hundred feet away. I have very few t-shirts that don’t sport the company logo. On Twitter, I have shared my wedding, my kids’ births, my proudest and darkest moments. I have shot my mouth off, and (sometimes) apologized for being wrong. I have taken unpopular stances, and revealed my code for living and what drives me. I have raised money for charities, raised money for politicians, and raised money for startups. I have cracked lame jokes and made vulnerable admissions. My wife and I even painted a room in our house the exact shade of the Twitter bird.

Along the way, I cultivated a precious group of Twitter followers. In the early days, my Tweets were pretty goofy. With time, the increasing size of my audience was daunting and I felt a sense of responsibility to add some value to their days. Through the ups and downs of my business and my personal life, I came to rely upon the feedback and support from my followers. Through the years they have kept me honest, focused, optimistic, and never feeling alone.

In parallel, since the earliest days investors and pundits had been asking skeptical questions like “How will Twitter ever make money?” and writing doomsday pieces with dead bird clip art. I spent a couple of years trying to convince them of Twitter’s potential and ultimately decided that rather than waste the energy, fuck it, I would just buy all the stock I could find. It was a seemingly impossible aspiration for a guy living in Truckee with no office and only one employee. Nevertheless, by the time of the IPO, my affiliated funds had accrued the biggest stake in the company.

Throughout this entire time, I never worked at Twitter and I was never on the board. I have been involved with the company as long as the now-CEO, Dick Costolo. We both invested in the earliest outside round and we both served as advisers. In 2009 he joined Twitter full-time as the CEO and I stayed outside.

Consider for a moment having so much of your life, your energy, your attention, your passion, and your net worth tied up in a company where you don’t work. A company where no outsider can attend the weekly all-hands meeting. I am no longer an official adviser to Twitter and I have no more exposure to the product roadmap than any other person who isn’t a Twitter employee.

Yet, I certainly have strong opinions about Twitter. Frankly, who doesn’t? I yearn to know where this company is headed. Having been one of the first 140 users, I have seen multiple eras of the product. I have navigated three CEOs, a couple generations of the board, and continual evolution of the management team. I have listened to 9 years of complaints about what isn’t working and bold claims from all directions about what Twitter is/isn’t and should/shouldn’t be. I have offered countless of my own suggestions about what could be better and what Twitter should do next. (For the record, a bunch of those ideas were dead wrong.)

During all of these years, I haven’t been as candid as I could be in public discussions about Twitter. I have made dozens of television appearances in support of Twitter and thousands of emails and calls with analysts, investors, reporters, potential hires, partners, you name it. I always felt like the birdie was one of my children and I needed to defend it at all costs. I never expressed any frustration or disappointment at missed opportunities or any exasperation at what wasn’t happening. However, a recent Periscope I did with Jim Cramer at CNBC changed my stance on that.

In the hours following the latest earnings call, Cramer and I traded insights as to what we each thought was going wrong and what could be better. It felt good to be both a critic of Twitter and yet reaffirm my steadfast belief in its potential. It was cathartic to say what was on my mind to an audience broader than just a few executives at the company. Most importantly, those messages resonated with the viewers, some of whom were Twitter employees. My Tweet mentions and email inbox were filled with passionate stockholders and Twitter users who cared deeply about what was ahead for the company.

I write all this because I am soon going to post a few things that I personally hope the Twitter team will accomplish. I want to make clear that my feedback comes from a place of loyalty and persistent gratitude. I love Twitter. I use it for hours each day and can’t imagine life without it. I also love the people building Twitter. Many of them are like family to me.

I believe without reservation that Twitter can soon evolve to be used by over 500 million people a month. I believe there is no natural ceiling on the revenue Twitter can generate. I also believe that Twitter’s reach can become more pervasive and its impact on the world more meaningful. I believe Twitter is a great investment and that the stock is cheap.

So stay tuned for a few more of my thoughts about Twitter. In the meantime, thanks for giving me the chance to reflect on a journey that has meant so much to me.

I bleed aqua.


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Why I would never want to compete with Travis Kalanick.

(Disclaimer: I own a bunch of Uber stock.)

Over the last couple of days, there has been assorted press speculation about Google launching an Uber competitor. As a proud Google alum, I have deep respect for the company and, in particular, I consider Larry Page an absolute genius. Working with him was a privilege. However, when I posted this Tweet about Larry and Uber CEO Travis Kalanick and it led to a lot of reporters asking me for a deeper explanation:

Let me tell you a little story that might give you a sense of why I think trying to take on Travis is a losing proposition:

A few years back, before Uber was anything more than an app used by a group of our friends, Travis was staying at my house in the mountains over the holidays. One morning before snowshoeing, my dad challenged Travis to a friendly Wii Tennis match. My dad is a competitive guy and used to enjoy playing in local, real-life tennis tournaments when I was a kid. He also had a Wii at home and considered himself versed in the virtual game. So, he thought it could be a good opportunity to dish out a little good-natured pain to Travis.

As the match kicked off, there was my dad in an athletic stance and confidently giving it his all. He might have even been sweating a bit. Yet, Travis was barely moving his arm or breaking his wrist. Though my dad hung in there and kept it close, Travis won every game.

That was when TK, with full Princess Bride panache, announced that he had been playing with his opposite hand, and promptly swtiched. Uh-oh. For the next 20 minutes, my dad didn’t manage to score a single point. He was completely skunked. Yet, looking over at Travis, it was clear he was still waking up.

Travis could tell my dad was feeling dejected. I mean, the poor guy was getting aced at least every other serve. A slight smirk came over TK’s face and he reached out to shake my dad’s hand, offering him a touch of consolation.

“I have a confession to make, Mr. Sacca. I’ve played a fair amount of Wii Tennis before.” While talking, he used his controller to navigate through the settings pages on the Wii to a list of high scores. “In fact,” he continued, “on the Wii Tennis global leaderboard, I am currently tied for 2nd in the world.”

I had known Travis since the days I worked at Speedera, a head-on rival of his company, Red Swoosh. I knew he was eerily brilliant and could do some powerful math in his head. His reputation as a gifted salesman and product strategist preceded him. I had also seen years and years of how scrappy, ingenious, and resourceful Travis can be when building his business. It was a mutual admiration of these characteristics in charting our careers that led to us being friends in the first place.

But that day in Truckee, I was reminded of how tireless and obsessive Travis can be when it comes to achieving goals he sets out for himself. If he decides he wants to research a new industry, he will be a veritable expert within days. If he wants to understand a new city, he will be there 24 hours from now with just a half-sized backpack and already hanging with the locals. If he wants to be one of the best Wii Tennis players in the world, even while busy co-founding one of the fastest growing companies in history and advising a half dozen others from his storied Jampad, just give him a couple weeks.

He doesn’t sleep. He doesn’t lose focus. He will even forget to eat. He executes again and again, inspiring those around him to have the same passion for the end game as he does. So, if Travis decides he wants to provide a cleaner, safer, easier experience than the current taxi system, he will make that work. If he sets his sights on reforming pervasive, anti-consumer regulatory corruption, watch those laws soon fall while exposing the shady backroom deals that created them. If he wants to eviscerate the racism that keeps people of color from having consistent access to rides in taxis, that will be the result. If he wants to take drunk drivers off the street, you will see the fatality rates fall wherever he operates his business. If Travis wants to build a company that offers, as Uber’s mission statement reads, “Transportation as reliable as running water, everywhere for everyone,” he will make that happen.

As my dad learned playing tennis with him, and as I have been reminded time and again, thinking about competing with Travis Kalanick? Good luck.

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Staying Safe(r) Online.

In light of the celebrity photo hacking debacle over the weekend, we sent an email to some of our investors, partners, and friends this morning. The more we thought about it, the more we realized that a broader audience could benefit. So here is a version…

Dear Friends,

We saw how ugly it can be when hackers get into your private pictures and emails. In addition to having very long passwords/passphrases, here are five concrete things you can do to make sure this kind of privacy invasion is less likely to happen to you or any of your pals/family:

1) Email – It goes without saying, use Gmail. Turn on what’s called “Two Factor Authentication” for your Gmail account. With that in place, when you want to log in to Gmail, you enter both a password and a secret code generated by an app on your phone. No hacker can get past that, even if they guess your password. (Well, other than the NSA.) Go here for directions on how to set it up: google.com/landing/2step/ If your business isn’t already using Gmail/Google Apps, it is time to make the switch. It’s the most secure platform.

2) iPhone – turn on “Two-Step Verification” for Apple as well. Same idea. Whenever you need to enter your iTunes password, Apple will also send you a text message in that moment with a secret code. Type that in and you will get access to Apple. This matters because so many of your photos are in iCloud and Photostream, though researchers have revealed that Apple doesn’t actually protect photo backups using two factor authentication. That is disastrous and will hopefully be fixed ASAP. Meanwhile, you can still follow the steps here: support.apple.com/kb/HT5570 (If you use an Android phone, be sure to install Lookout: https://www.lookout.com/android)

3) Dropbox – If you use Dropbox to back up photos and documents, they have the same feature. Log in to your account and click on your name in the upper right to open your account menu. Then go to “Settings.” From there, select “Security.” Under “Two-Step Verification” click “Enable.” Then “Get Started” and follow the instructions.

4) Twitter – Instructions on setting up Twitter’s “Login Verification” are here: https://blog.twitter.com/2013/getting-started-with-login-verification

5) Facebook – Here is their “Login Approvals”: https://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=10150172618258920

Please note: each of these solutions will provide you with some backup codes just in case you lose your phone or phone settings. It is crucial to print them out and keep a paper copy of these (not a digital copy) in your safe at home. If you get locked out of your services, you may need these paper codes to manually get back in. Please print these out and store them safely. You will be sad if you don’t.

Also, consider using a two-factor authentication app like Authy or Google Authenticator to keep all of these profiles organized. They can also sync across devices if you have multiple phones or might be on a tablet without text messaging service.

All told, there are a bunch of other services that enable this kind of extra security now. WordPressYahoo MailMicrosoft AccountsLinkedIn, and Stripe are some big ones. But the five listed above tend to cover where all of our most sensitive data and content reside. The most complete list of other services using two factor authentication I have seen is here: https://twofactorauth.org/.

As I am sure you know, it’s not really about whether you have steamy photos on your phones. It’s about maintaining maximum privacy and control over your life. So much information lives on these devices now. Personal addresses, bank information, family matters, kids’ stuff, passwords to other sites, medical questions, etc. Skilled hackers can be relentless and their genius at devising new ways or breaking security features is almost eerily impressive. Using very strong passwords and taking the steps above will be a very strong step toward making sure your private stuff stays private. However, above all, please be smart about what you put in the cloud and realize there is always a chance it ends up in the wrong hands.

(Note: all security geeks, nitpickers, whitehats, etc. I love and admire you. You make all of this stuff work so well. You find the ridiculous corner cases and engineer against them so that we can stay safe. Thank you. However, this post is not intended to be an all-encompassing treatise on security. I just think we can agree that if more good people take these reasonable steps they will likely be in much better shape. Cool?)

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A few thoughts on race, America, and our President.

Last year, I had the chance to ask President Obama directly what it is like to be a black president. (Our conversation was off the record, but after this NSA stuff, I’m not sure that matters anymore.)

POTUS said that as a black president he has had to concede he is “not allowed to make any sudden movements” and he will quickly be labeled an “angry black man.” He said that’s what made it hard to respond in kind to Mitt Romney’s attacks in their first debate. Fair enough. That is a practical stance. He has to worry about alienating the electorate. However, most of those who might be offended by his aggression likely made up their minds about him long ago.

Instead, I believe exactly what we need now is for our President to be angry. The fact that he is black is even better. It is an advantage. It is an asset. It informs him about these issues in a way that a briefing book never could. We need a President who has had enough. A President who can both speak from personal frustration and who can also voice a nation’s exasperation. A President who is willing to call bullshit and lead us all to action.

Yet he keeps punting on the issue of race in America. He wades in the margins. He pulls punches and treads lightly. He yields the chance to say what everyone paying attention knows: this has gone too far.

We are a nation at war with itself. We jail our black men, and women, and boys. (Our Hispanic population isn’t far behind.) We punish our poor. We have militarized our police. We selectively uphold our Constitution. “Justice for All” is a propagandist relic.

Now before you label me as one-sided on this issue, let me say from what I have seen, if it was in fact Michael Brown in the videotape from the convenience store, then he was acting like an asshole and likely would have deserved some form of criminal prosecution.

But Michael Brown’s shooter wasn’t stopping him in connection with the cigarillos and the shoving. Apparently, he was confronted for jaywalking, and no matter how threatened you think that cop felt in a car with a gun, I have yet to hear any excuse whatsoever that justifies him shooting an unarmed man 6 to 9 times, including twice in the head.

Still, that highlights my biggest fear in all of this. I worry that we will not take a step back and be honest with ourselves. I fear we won’t look away from the specifics of this particular case and acknowledge that this keeps happening. I am afraid we won’t pause and recognize a clear and bloody pattern in our daily reality. We have an ugly problem in this country. We are racist. Let’s not only admit that to ourselves, we need to hear that right from the top. No need to equivocate anymore. The facts on this issue are loud:

In today’s United States, one of three black men between the ages of 18 and 30 is in jail, in prison, on probation, or on parole. In urban centers like Los Angeles, that’s increases to over 50% of the black citizenry. Black people are incarcerated at over 6 times the rates of whites. Black Americans represent 12% of the total population of drug users, but 38% of those arrested for drug offenses, and 59% of those in state prison for a drug offense. Blacks serve virtually as much time in prison for a drug offense (58.7 months) as whites do for a violent offense (61.7 months). In this country, a black defendant is 22 times more likely to get the death penalty if the victim is white. (For sources and more on this stuff see herehere, and here.)

I believe President Obama has the toughest job in the world. I have worked on his campaigns and with him and his team on hard issues while in office, and I have seen firsthand the damned if you do/don’t decisions he must make every day. It is very easy to pound on my desk and tell him how to do his job. But this middle-of-the-road stuff isn’t cutting it anymore. The reasoned, parsed, calm rhetoric won’t change our path.

We elected President Obama because he was bold and willing to speak up. We knew we needed change. We rejected the status quo. So when we all stop our work midday to watch him take to the podium, we are hopeful. We want him to be genuine and unfiltered. We don’t want sanitized, approved, safe language. Then as he speaks, we see Tweets of disappointment and resignation trickle out from our friends. We begin to doubt ourselves for believing in him and thinking he can help.

So, I say to our President, enough. It’s time. I have seen you behind closed doors. You are better than this. You are savvy, thoughtful, strategic, empathic, and you inspire confidence. You are also decisive, no-bullshit, very demanding, have strong instincts, know how to cut to the chase, and tend to be a good judge of people.

Please eschew the filters, the patience, and the compromise. Please tip the scales. Please go boldly on the record and tell us straight from the heart. Please step back up to the podium and lead. Please be brave.

Please just be yourself.



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Four guys who deserve to win a Crunchie.

It’s flattering to be nominated for any award, let alone a Crunchie. I mean, these are the geek Oscars. I even picked up some fresh dry cleaning to wear to the show.

But, it doesn’t make sense to include me on a list of finalists for Angel of the Year. Put simply, I am not an angel. Lowercase is a family of funds that risk some of my money paired with lots of money from my investors. I am also not the only guy here after we recently hired Matt Mazzeo as a partner in the firm.

True angels are accountable only to themselves and their portfolio companies. They put their own cash on the barrel and know that if they lose it all, they don’t have anyone or anything else to blame. It’s entirely on them.

A few years ago, a class of investors called superangels emerged. Generally speaking, we raised small funds to match our own dollars and wrote checks to startups that were larger than those from traditional angels. These scrappy, understaffed funds still feel angel-ish to me. But, once a firm starts investing bigger checks in later stage deals, like we have done at Lowercase, I am not sure the angel moniker still applies.

On the other hand, I also wouldn’t begin to be named a finalist in the VC category either.  Those guys listed are all first-rate company-builders. The work that gets done at a Series B or C is very different from what we do at the seed level. It’s an entirely distinct form of efficacy, scale, and execution that my peers and I don’t deliver. So, no Crunchies with my name on them this year.

Nevertheless, I think each of the four other finalists for Angel of the Year is worth a shout and recognition for their impact on startups:

Mike Arrington – Sure Mike has a fund behind him now, but to get to that point, he risked a hell of a lot of his own money and well before he had seen any liquidity from the sale of TechCrunch. He backed up his talk with plenty of walk and ponied up his own coin to get into deals that moved him. More importantly, we can all agree that Arrington catalyzed a community from a loose and scattered mess and taught so many of us the language and process of this entire realm. It’s unnerving to consider what angel investing would look like without Arrington’s impact on the space.

Chris Dixon – Probably the most authentically angel-ly of the bunch, Chris always tends to find his way into extremely solid companies and has developed a strong reputation for being helpful to his entrepreneurs. His blog is incredibly rich and evidences how selfless he is with his time when it comes to educating new entrepreneurs and investors. He is also due credit for being one of the most ardent and unwavering fans of the NYC tech scene. Yet all this aside, I think it is most amazing to consider that he has accomplished all of this while busy founding, leading, and exiting his own startups as well. He is the real deal.

Paul Graham – No single person has had more impact on the creation and financing of tech startups than PG. Period. The YCombinator revolution emancipated the engineering class from servitude to MBA overlords, demystified the art of company-founding, and made huge leaps toward democratizing access to capital. I could go on, but we all already know how lucky we are to have Paul.

David Lee – This guy has only recently started to get the credit he deserves. Of course, he too is investing a fund’s money, and doing it very well at that. He also has started blogging more regularly and his pieces are invariably thoughtful and worthy of any entrepreneur or investor’s time. However, take an extra moment to consider the sheer gutsiness of the Start Fund, a project he created. By ensuring that an entire class of companies automatically had the funds necessary for months of operations and growth, David brought a previously unforeseen level of accessibility to startup capital. At the most crucial stages of a company’s life, thanks to the Start Fund, founders could focus on product and not be distracted by the harrowing burden of fundraising so early. That in itself is an entrepreneurial move and it makes me happy to see people recognizing David’s impact.

I will be excited and grateful when they call any of these guys’ names at the Crunchies. The startup world is a better place thanks to each of them. As for me, don’t you worry. Alexia assures me that a Western Themed Investor Attire category will be included in the voting any day now.


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WANTED: Cowpoke/Intern

[Update: The job has been filled. But, stay awesome.]

So, it turns out that managing a portfolio of thirty-nine companies, a couple of secondary vehicles, and two private equity fund partnerships is time-consuming. Who knew? Result is that there are lots of loose ends at Lowercase just begging for knots. Thus, we seek an intern with tiny, nimble fingers.

There is no formal set of requirements, many of the responsibilities will be up to you to propose, and the position will be mildly compensated. “Mildly” meaning on a heat scale ranging from Sweet Bell peppers to Habaneros… ketchup. You can perform your Lowercase duties from anywhere in the world, and this is non-negotiable, for the most part, usually, kind of. The prospect of a field trip to visit Lowercase HQ in Truckee should worry you a little bit, but you will nevertheless rehearse your best Real America colloquialisms and be ready to wear a “My kid shot a deer while your honor student was in school” shirt if survival requires it.

Broadly speaking, your professors/bosses consider you brilliant and therefore turn to you for help managing their Facebook privacy settings. (Having actually successfully reset them is not a required skill.) You have strong opinions about new tech products, are ultimately wrong more often than you are right, and are proud to admit so to everyone except the TechCrunch journalist you called a “sycophantic fanboy douchebag” in the launch post comments. You know exactly how Google could win at social if you could just get Eric, Larry, and Sergey to return your damn emails, and you have tattooed three potential business models for Twitter on your inner thigh. You can foresee how Groupon will be retailing human organs by Q3 2011, and you have asked your parents to stop calling you on Sundays and instead submit their questions to you via Formspring.me.

By this point, your copy of Excel should have a Pavlovian desire to please you, and of course, you have a pet name for it. You have considered if and how spreadsheet macros could solve the climate crisis and you have already begun coding them. You’ve gotten to second base with HTML and PHP, even better if at the same time (you animal). Your business-y friends tease you for being a geek, but your money-allergic nerd friends bust your chops for being a greedy sellout and they write open source rallying cries on your forehead when you pass out. You have considered whether there is a mass market for Fred Wilson, Chris Dixon, Ron Conway, Brad Feld, Josh Kopelman and Dave McClure trading cards, and even if you decided there isn’t, you printed yours anyway.

You refer to people by their Twitter handles first, and find every third sentence from the old lady who lives next door to be OH’able. You have submitted at least one word to the Urban Dictionary and you’ve said “stack that cheddar” to someone 20 years your senior. You believe that golf is the old golf. You can immediately tell if you have stepped in a new meme and have it all over your shoe, and somewhere bit.ly has data showing you are Patient Zero for viral links. Gary Vaynerchuk and Kevin Rose order whatever you’re drinking, Tony Hsieh calls you when he is feeling unhappy, and Tim Ferriss has given you the password to his inbox.

You’ve had a tipping job, or dug ditches, or dug ditches for tips. You’ve traveled extensively abroad and can say “What is your Wi-Fi password?” in over 10 languages. You have a hobby or an interest that has likely put you on a government watchlist, and you’ve responded by putting the government on your watchlist. You play sports more than you watch sports on TV (partly because you think TVs are quaint anachronisms), and you likely grew up somewhere that when you mention it to others you have to follow it up with, “No. Really.” You wish the Dos Equis guy would post his 23andMe results with you to see if you really are related.

To apply, send us your resume, a bio, a general statement of why the hell you would want to sully your reputation by being associated with such a sordid outfit as Lowercase, and what three things you would do if you were in charge of Fanbridge, Twilio, and Posterous. Lastly, to insure you have actually read this far, and if you have, I probably owe you an apology, please include a link to your favorite cowboy shirt made by Scully. Bundle all of this up in a digital saddlebag and Pony Express it to: [the job has been filled for now…]

Thanks, all,


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Closed. Thus, Open.

I’ve always found it goofy to use the word “closed” to describe something that finally kicked off. Nevertheless, I’ll play along with convention this one time and note how thrilled I am to announce the Lowercase Capital has closed its latest fund: an $8.5 million pile of loot intended exclusively for awesome startups.

Our investing philosophy is sprinkled all over this site, so no sense spitting it onto this page as well. Furthermore, I will spare you the “at the end of the day Lowercase Capital pings you so we can think out of the box to get to a win-win while avoiding the sharp elbows and pivoting toward opening the kimono of the 800-pound gorilla to fire up his A-game” bullshit.

Nope. Instead, I just want to say how f’ing fortunate we feel to be doing what we do for a living, and grateful for all of your help. Thanks to all of our investors who entrusted their money to a guy who dresses like a mugged rodeo clown, and to our fine lawyers who reassured me I could get this done without having to shave or tuck in my shirt. Most importantly, thanks to all of the Lowercase portfolio entrepreneurs. Their energy gets me out of bed in the morning. (Figuratively, figuratively.)

With all of this paperwork nonsense behind us, I can’t tell you how eager I am to get back to work. Thirteen-year old me would have been disgusted to hear that. But, it’s true. So, if you are working on some hot shizz that you think could use our help, you know where to hit us. In the meantime, you can keep tabs on Lowercase in the Tweets. Also, now that I no longer need a securities lawyer’s permission before endeavoring to form complete sentences, I might even post some half-baked notions here on this blog from time to time.

For now, thanks to all of you,


(Did that end up being more than 140 characters? Seems close.)

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